Mountain Safety Research, or MSR, is an American corporation founded in 1969 by Larry Penberthy in Seattle, Washington. 1973 Penberthy developed the MSR Model 9 camp stove, a design which was relatively efficient in cold weather. He separated the stove burner from then small fuel tanks, and then pressurized auxiliary fuel bottles as the tank, and used a better wind screen. He also designed an ice axe that was supposed to dig into the ice better and stop a slide. Penberthy also introduced metal-shafted ice axes; metal axes have replaced earlier wooden-shaft designs. In August 2001 MSR was acquired by Cascade Designs.